IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA
perhaps the ultimate irony is that the Spanish Inquisition – intended to crush Judaism and send Spain’s Sephardim into ignominious exile – actually had the opposite effect. The displaced Jews, like so many tiny floating seeds from a milkweed pod, landed on fertile ground in Holland, France, Scotland, Germany, Switzerland, and England, where they grew into the Protestant Reformation.” (When Scotland Was Jewish, p. 204) “...
Qabalah (also spelled cabala, kabbala, kabbalah) is a system of Jewish mysticism which originated in Babylon and was revived in the Languedoc (South France) at the end of the 12th century, whence it spread to Spain. With the expulsion of the Jews from from Spain (1492) and Portugal (1497), Qabalah spread like a revival throughout Europe. Qabalah represents various Jewish mystical traditions which coalesced in the 12th and 13th centuries to form a coherent system of mystical doctrine and practice. A complex system of numerology, letters, signs and symbols was devised to communicate the secret doctrine. For example, the occult trinity Father, Mother and Son, is expressed in the Tetragrammaton (IHVH) and Sephirot.
Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola, founder of the Illuminati and Jesuit Order which led the Counter-Reformation, was a Marrano Jew of Spain.
“The Illuminati Order was not invented by Adam Weishaupt, but rather renewed and reformed. The first known Illuminati order (Alumbrado) was founded in 1492 by Spanish Jews, called ‘Marranos,’ who were also known as ‘crypto-Jews.’ With violent persecution in Spain and Portugal beginning in 1391, hundreds of thousands of Jews had been forced to convert to the faith of the Roman Catholic Church. Publicly they were now Roman Catholics, but secretly they practiced Judaism, including following the Talmud and the Cabala. The Marranos were able to teach their children secretly about Judaism, but in particular the Talmud and the Cabala, and this huge group of Jews has survived to this very day. After 1540 many Marranos opted to flee to England, Holland, France, the Ottoman empire (Turkey), Brazil and other places in South and Central America. The Marranos kept strong family ties and they became very wealthy and influential in the nations where they lived. But as is the custom with all Jewish people, it did not matter in what nation they lived, their loyalty was to themselves and Judaism.
“The following information is going to be a ‘shock ’to all Roman Catholics. In 1491 San Ignacio De Loyola was born in the Basque province of Guipuzcoa, Spain. His parents were Marranos and at the time of his birth the family was very wealthy. As a young man he became a member of the Jewish Illuminati Order in Spain. As a cover for his crypto Jewish activities, he became very active as a Roman Catholic. On May 20, 1521 Ignatius (as he was now called) was wounded in a battle, and became a semi-cripple. Unable to succeed in the military and political arena, he started a quest for holiness and eventually ended up in Paris where he studied for the priesthood. In 1539 he had moved to Rome where he founded the ‘Jesuit Order, ’which was to become the most vile, bloody and persecuting order in the Roman Catholic Church. In 1540, the current Pope Paul III approved the order. At Loyola’s death in 1556 there were more than 1000 members in the Jesuit order, located in a number of nations.
“Setting up the Jesuit order, Ignatius Loyola devised an elaborate spy system, so that no one in the order was safe. If there was any opposition, death would come swiftly. The Jesuit order not only became a destructive arm of the Roman Catholic Church; it also developed into a secret intelligence service. While the Popes relied more and more on the Jesuits, they were unaware that the hardcore leadership were Jewish, and that these Jews held membership in the Illuminati Order which despised and hated the Roman Catholic Church.
“In 1623 Marranos formed an order in France called ‘Guerients, ’which in 1722 was changed to an Illuminati Order.
How Satan Moved in the Centuries
“A baby boy was born on February 6, 1748, in Ingolstadt, a city in the German state of Bavaria, 192 years after the death of Ignatius Loyola. His parents were crypto Jews. The name of the boy was Joseph Johann Adam Weishaupt. The Father of Adam held a position of professor at the city university. Adam was educated in the Jesuit Order where he was exposed to the Jesuit organization and its political agenda. Here is a young Jew, who from early childhood learned that he had a secret allegiance to the Talmud and the Cabala, but outwardly he was a dedicated Roman Catholic.” (How the World Government Rules the Nations)
“Illuminati, I-lu-ml-na’ti ( ‘the illuminated ’), the name given to themselves by an association of people who professed to have attained to a higher knowledge of God, and heavenly things, and a deeper insight into the spiritual world than the rest of mankind. They were represented by the Alombrados in Spain and the Guerients in France. In the last half of the 18th century a sect of mystics rose in Belgium which from its foundation 1 May 1776 at Ingolstadt, spread over a large portion of Catholic Germany. At first they called themselves ‘Perfectibilists. ’Their founder was Adam Weishaupt (q.v.), a professor of canon law at Ingolstadt. ” (The Americana: A Universal Library, Vol. 11)
Ignatius of Loyola was trained at the University of Paris, Montague College, which John Calvin attended during the same time.
“He made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and then studied in Barcelona, Alcala, and, finally, at the University of Paris, where he received the Master of Arts in 1534. Still his fervor did not slacken. At Paris he was to meet companions who were like-minded in spiritual outlook and whose names would become well known in Jesuit annals: Francis Xavier (a Spanish Basque like Ignatius), Favre, Laynez, Salmeron, Rodriguez, Bobadilla. Together they would become
‘the Company ’, the first Jesuits, defenders of the faith in heretical times. (Defenders of the Faith in Word and Deed, C. P. Connor, p. 54)
“This hub of philosophic thought at the College of Montague trained not only John Calvin, but other important figures of the Catholic Reformation in that day. It is interesting to note that the famous Catholic humanist, Desiderius Erasmus, studied at the College of Montague in 1495, as did Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Catholic monastic and Counter Reformation order, the Jesuits, in 1536. (Calvinism: Spiritual Fusion)
The Jesuit Order was similar to the Rosicrucian Order in its attachment to the Hermetic occult tradition.
"Yet of all the branches of the Roman Catholic Church it was the Jesuits who were most like the Rosicrucians. The Renaissance esoteric influences behind the formation of the Jesuit Order have not yet been fully studied. The Order made great use of the Hermetic tradition in appealing to Protestants and to the many other creeds which it encountered in its missionary work. The Hermetic and occult philosophy of the Jesuits received a tremendous formulation in the work of Athanasius Kircher, whose vast work on Hermetic pseudo-Egyptology was published in 1652 and who constantly cites with profound reverence the supposed ancient Egyptian priest, Hermes Trismegestus ...
"Through their common attachment to Hermetic tradition, the Jesuits and the 'Rosicrucians' were thus foes with a love-hate relationship through a kind of similarity. We have seen that in the furore the Jesuits tried to draw over Rosicrucian symbolism, suggesting that the two Orders were the same, and manufacturing similar emblematics. So the issues could become confused." (Frances Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, p. 230)
“We will argue in Chapter 10 that some of the principle architects of the Protestant Reformation, in particular John Calvin of France and John Knox of Scotland, were descendants of Sephardic Jews...We propose that the Reformation, beyond being a movement against Catholicism, should be seen as a movement toward Judaism.” (When Scotland Was Jewish, pp. 94, 200)
John Calvin studied at the University of Paris, Montague College, during the same time period as Ignatius of Loyola.
“Several able men taught this decade at Montaigu, although we cannot be sure that Calvin attended their courses. …we may mention the presence at Montaigu of the Scot John Mair (1469-1550). It would be a rather piquant thing if Calvin had been the student of John Mair, who counted Ignatius Loyola among his students. The first Jesuit and the most famous of the Reformers would have followed the same course, with an interval of some years. (Ignatius Loyola, born in 1491, was Calvin’s elder by eighteen years; he died in 1556, eight years before the Reformer.) Unfortunately, no proof exists that Calvin received instruction from the Scot. The latter had long resided in Paris before returning to his distant country in 1531. He counted among his numerous students John Knox, the future Scottish Reformer. But whether or not he was directly influenced, Calvin repeated in his writings a certain number of themes Mair contributed to popularizing: emphasis on faith, predestination, stressing of the Word, and above the assimilation of logic and grammar. These themes are too precise for one to deny the possibility of an influence by John Mair on John Calvin’s thought, and too general for one to draw the least positive conclusion from them.” (Bernard Cottret, Calvin: A Biography, p. 20)
Evidence of Calvin's Jewish ethnicity and religion
JOHN CALVIN / CAUVIN (1509-1564)
“John (Jean) Calvin was born in 1509 in Picardy, France; the family name was perhaps actually Cauvin. John’s father, Gerard, was employed as an attorney by the Lord of Noyon. Of John’s youth we know only that he served the noble family of deMontmor and studied for the priesthood. In early adulthood, Calvin moved to Paris, where he became friends with the two sons of the French king’s physician. Given their surname and their father’s occupation, Nicholas and Michael Cop were likely of Crypto-Jewish descent. 7
Calvin’s father persuaded him to abandon training for an ecclesiastical career and instead pursue an education in the law. However, in 1529 Calvin decided instead to seek an education in the humanities under scholar Andrea Aciate 8 in Bourges, France. Calvin was joined there by a friend from Orleans, Melchior Wolmar. Wolmar instructed Calvin in Greek and later in Paris, Calvin became proficient in Hebrew, as well. From 1532 to 1534, Calvin experienced a religious epiphany, turning to Protestantism. Concurrently, his friend Nicolas Cop was elected rector of the University of Paris. Calvin helped prepare Cop’s inaugural address which was strongly Protestant in tone. As a result, Cop was ordered to appear before the Parisian Parliament, but fled instead to Basel, Switzerland – a Protestant stronghold.
“At the time, a war was in progress between Francis I and Charles V, so Calvin was forced to make his own way to Switzerland through Geneva. In Geneva, William Farel 9 (bearing a Sephardic surname), founder of the Reformed Church in Geneva, convinced Calvin to stay and help preach the new Protestant theology. Calvin obliged and set up several Protestant religious schools in the city.
“However, theology within the new Protestant movement was in flux; a diversity of theological positions was present even from the earliest days, perhaps due to the desire to overthrow the strict orthodoxy of the Catholic doctrine. Thus Calvin’s views were shared by some but not by all Reform theologian of the time period. Calvin next moved on to Strasbourg where he married a widow, Idelette de Burre, in 1540. He continued to preach, write and teach in Strasbourg, establishing himself as one of the prime movers of the new theology.
“From this capsule biography we learn that Calvin’s father was an attorney in Picardy, which contained at the time a flourishing Marrano colony. 10 Obviously his father was literate and well-educated; he was also an advisor to nobility – common traits of Crypto-Jews. Gerard Cauvin was clearly ambitious for his son, guiding his career with an eye toward social and economic advancement. He was not a force of Catholic religious fervor or conventional piety.
“We read also that John chose to learn both Greek and Hebrew, languages which would have permitted him to read the Old Testament (i.e. Torah) in its original form, rather than relying upon Christian translations into Latin. We perceive as well that he favored universal literacy, a Judaic value, that two of his closest friends had Sephardic surnames, and that he married a woman named Idelette de Bure, evidently of possible Sephardic descent. A surviving sketch of John Calvin shows him with leather head covering, full beard and dark features. While we do not presume to judge the sincerity or Christian orientation of his beliefs, we do hold that he was of Crypto-Jewish descent, that he moved in circles that included Marranos, and that his theology would naturally have been influenced by these ancestral and communal ties.” 11 (pp. 50, 200-201, 204)
7. [fn. 7 Cop, also rendered Cope, should probably be viewed as another one of those British surnames…based on Hebrew letters, in this case Kaf כ] / Sephardic surname: Cope, Copeland, Coppel
8. An Italo-Arabic surname.
9. A Sephardic French surname.
10. Sects highly monotheistic and consequently quite compatible, theologically, with Judaism.
11. Goris (1925) gives lists of Marranos arrested 1519-1570, some accused of Judaizing, others of Calvinism; one, Marcus Perez, was banished, and Alfonso Rubero fled to England in 1540 (pp. 651-654).
Used by Permission. Elizabeth Caldwell Hirschman & Donald N. Yates, When Scotland Was Jewish: DNA Evidence, Archeology, Analysis of Migrations, and Public and Family Records Show Twelfth Century Semitic Roots, 2007, McFarland & Co. Publishers.
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“A surviving sketch of John Calvin shows him with leather head covering, full beard and dark features. ...we do hold that he was of Crypto-Jewish descent, that he moved in circles that included Marranos, and that his theology would naturally have been influenced by these ancestral and communal ties. ” ( When Scotland Was Jewish , p. 204)
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Calvin only written testimony was not of his conversion to Jesus Christ but to King David and the Protestant Reformation.
“For A Ganoczy is justified in noting that for Calvin the idea of conversion was subordinated to the idea of vocation. One should also not fail to emphasize the importance of the conversion of Saint Paul in the body of Christian literature. Every conversion is, in its way, a road to Damascus. But why did Calvin not cite the Apostle Paul here? Why, moreover, contrary to the expectations of his readers, did he employ the figure of King David?” (Bernard Cottrett, Calvin: A Biography, p. 69. See: Young Calvin by A
“Now, if my readers derive any fruit and advantage from the labor which I have bestowed in writing these Commentaries, I would have them to understand that the small measure of experience which I have had by the conflicts with which the Lord has exercised me, has in no ordinary degree assisted me, not only in applying to present use whatever instruction could be gathered from these divine compositions, but also in more easily comprehending the design of each of the writers. And as David holds the principal place among them, it has greatly aided me in understanding more fully the complaints made by him of the internal afflictions which the Church had to sustain through those who gave themselves out to be her members, that I had suffered the same or similar things from the domestic enemies of the Church. For although I follow David at a great distance, and come far short of equaling him; or rather, although in aspiring slowly and with great difficulty to attain to the many virtues in which he excelled, I still feel myself tarnished with the contrary vices; yet if I have any things in common with him, I have no hesitation in comparing myself with him. In reading the instances of his faith, patience, fervor, zeal, and integrity, it has, as it ought, drawn from me unnumbered groans and sighs, that I am so far from approaching them; but it has, notwithstanding, been of very great advantage to me to behold in him as in a mirror, both the commencement of my calling, and the continued course of my function; so that I know the more assuredly, that whatever that most illustrious king and prophet suffered, was exhibited to me by God as an example for imitation. My condition, no doubt, is much inferior to his, and it is unnecessary for me to stay to show this. But as he was taken from the sheepfold, and elevated to the rank of supreme authority; so God having taken me from my originally obscure and humble condition, has reckoned me worthy of being invested with the honorable office of a preacher and minister of the gospel. When I was as yet a very little boy, my father had destined me for the study of theology. But afterwards when he considered that the legal profession commonly raised those who followed it to wealth this prospect induced him suddenly to change his purpose. Thus it came to pass, that I was withdrawn from the study of philosophy, and was put to the study of law. To this pursuit I endeavored faithfully to apply myself in obedience to the will of my father; but God, by the secret guidance of his providence, at length gave a different direction to my course. And first, since I was too obstinately devoted to the superstitions of Popery to be easily extricated from so profound an abyss of mire, God by a sudden conversion subdued and brought my mind to a teachable frame, which was more hardened in such matters than might have been expected from one at my early period of life. Having thus received some taste and knowledge of true godliness I was immediately inflamed with so intense a desire to make progress therein, that although I did not altogether leave off other studies, I yet pursued them with less ardor. I was quite surprised to find that before a year had elapsed, all who had any desire after purer doctrine were continually coming to me to learn, although I myself was as yet but a mere novice and tyro. Being of a disposition somewhat unpolished and bashful, which led me always to love the shade and retirement, I then began to seek some secluded corner where I might be withdrawn from the public view; but so far from being able to accomplish the object of my be desire, all my retreats were like public schools. In short, whilst my one great object was to live in seclusion without being known, God so led me about through different turnings and changes, that he never permitted me to rest in any place, until, in spite of my natural disposition, he brought me forth to public notice. Leaving my native country, France, I in fact retired into Germany, expressly for the purpose of being able there to enjoy in some obscure corner the repose which I had always desired, and which had been so long denied me. (John Calvin, Preface to the Psalms)
Calvin was not baptized as an adult and justified infant baptism as the continuation of God’s covenant of Jewish circumcision.
“…John Calvin…was unsound at the very foundation of the Christian faith. Calvin never gave a testimony of the new birth; rather he identified with his Catholic infant baptism. Note the following quotes from his Institutes: ‘At whatever time we are baptized, we are washed and purified once for the whole of life’ (Institutes, IV). ‘By baptism we are ingrafted into the body of Christ ... infants are to be baptized ... children of Christians, as they are immediately on their birth received by God as heirs of the covenant, are also to be admitted to baptism’ (Institutes, IV).” (FBIS, “The Calvinism Debate”)
“We have, therefore, a spiritual promise given to the fathers in circumcision, similar to that which is given to us in baptism, since it figured to them both the forgiveness of sins and the mortification of the flesh. Besides, as we have shown that Christ, in whom both of these reside, is the foundation of baptism, so must he also be the foundation of circumcision. For he is promised to Abraham, and in him all nations are blessed. To seal this grace, the sign of circumcision is added.
4. The difference is in externals only
“There is now no difficulty in seeing wherein the two signs agree, and wherein they differ. The promise, in which we have shown that the power of the signs consists, is one in both, viz., the promise of the paternal favour of God, of forgiveness of sins, and eternal life. And the thing figured is one and the same, viz., regeneration. . . . Hence we may conclude, that every thing applicable to circumcision applies also to baptism, excepting always the difference in the visible ceremony. . . For just as circumcision, which was a kind of badge to the Jews, assuring them that they were adopted as the people and family of God, was their first entrance into the Church, while they, in their turn, professed their allegiance to God, so now we are initiated by baptism, so as to be enrolled among his people, and at the same time swear unto his name. Hence it is incontrovertible, that baptism has been substituted for circumcision, and performs the same office.
5. Infants are participants in the covenant
“Now, if we are to investigate whether or not baptism is justly given to infants, will we not say that the man trifles, or rather is delirious, who would stop short at the element of water, and the external observance, and not allow his mind to rise to the spiritual mystery? If reason is listened to, it will undoubtedly appear that baptism is properly administered to infants as a thing due to them. The Lord did not anciently bestow circumcision upon them without making them partakers of all the things signified by circumcision. He would have deluded his people with mere imposture, had he quieted them with fallacious symbols: the very idea is shocking. This distinctly declares, that the circumcision of the infant will be instead of a seal of the promise of the covenant. But if the covenant remains firm and fixed, it is no less applicable to the children of Christians in the present day, than to the children of the Jews under the Old Testament. Now, if they are partakers of the thing signified, how can they be denied the sign? If they obtain the reality, how can they be refused the figure? The external sign is so united in the sacrament with the word, that it cannot be separated from it; but if they can be separated, to which of the two shall we attach the greater value? Surely, when we see that the sign is subservient to the word, we shall say that it is subordinate, and assign it the inferior place. Since, then, the word of baptism is destined for infants why should we deny them the signs which is an appendage of the word? This one reason, could no other be furnished, would be amply sufficient to refute all gainsayers. The objection, that there was a fixed day for circumcision, is a mere quibble. We admit that we are not now, like the Jews, tied down to certain days; but when the Lord declares that though he prescribes no day, yet he is pleased that infants shall be formally admitted to his covenant, what more do we ask?
6. Difference in the mode of confirmation only
“Scripture gives us a still clearer knowledge of the truth. For it is most evident that the covenant, which the Lord once made with Abraham (cf. Gen. 17:14), is not less applicable to Christians now than it was anciently to the Jewish people, and, therefore, that word has no less reference to Christians than to Jews. Unless, indeed, we imagine that Christ, by his advent, diminished or curtailed the grace of the Father - an idea not free from execrable blasphemy. Wherefore, both the children of the Jews, because, when made heirs of that covenant, they were separated from the heathen, were called a holy seed (Ezra 9:2; Isaiah 6:13), and for the same reason the children of Christians, or those who have only one believing parent, are called holy, and, by the testimony of the apostle, differ from the impure seed of idolaters (I Cor. 7:14). Then, since the Lord, immediately after the covenant was made with Abraham ordered it to be sealed, infants by an outward sacrament (Gen. 17:12), how can it be said that Christians are not to attest it in the present day, and seal it in their children? ” (John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, Book IV, Chapter 16)
Calvinism’s 5-point T.U.L.I.P. was derived from Gnostic Judaism.
Perseverance of the Saints
“Those, therefore, whom God passes by the reprobates, and that for no other cause but because he is pleased to exclude them from the inheritance which he predestines to his children...
“The decree, I admit, is, dreadful; and yet it is impossible to deny that God foreknow what the end of man was to be before he made him, and foreknew, because he had so ordained by his decree. Should any one here inveigh against the prescience of God, he does it rashly and unadvisedly. For why, pray, should it be made a charge against the heavenly Judge, that he was not ignorant of what was to happen? Thus, if there is any just or plausible complaint, it must be directed against predestination. Nor ought it to seem absurd when I say, that God not only foresaw the fall of the first man, and in him the ruin of his posterity; but also at his own pleasure arranged it. For as it belongs to his wisdom to foreknow all future events, so it belongs to his power to rule and govern them by his hand.
(John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, III.xxiii.1, 7) ”
“‘Gnosis’ means knowledge. The Gnostic religion was based on the possession of this knowledge: knowledge of God and things divine, either through direct mystical experience, or through the possession of a secret body of doctrine which had been handed down to the initiates...
...[T]here was a form of pagan Greek Gnosticism and a pre-Christian Jewish Gnosticism... The Gnosis, the knowledge which ensures salvation, is the realization by man that he contains a spark of God, and of the necessity of awakening from the half-life he leads on earth...to a full consciousness of his divinity and of how it has been ensnared in matter. This awakening can lead to several reactions. In any case, the Gnostic is one of the elect... “
two heresies in particular do show evidence of contact with the sources of the Secret Tradition. These are the heresy of the Cathars and that of the Free Spirit... The word ‘Cathar’ probably comes from the Greek ‘pure,’ [cf. Puritans] and the Cathar doctrines show the sect to have been Gnostic of the ascetic type... Strictly speaking it was not a heresy, but a rival religion; and as such it was ruthlessly wiped out... “...
(James Webb, The Occult Underground, pp. 199, 207, 239) “It is interesting to note that Calvin’s theory that those destined to salvation would ‘know’ of this and thus be numbered among the elect, is a fair approximation of Gnostic doctrine and had to some extent been anticipated by the heresy of the Free Spirit.”
“As to the Albigenses, their name derived from Albi, a town of the Languedoc, covered not one but many sects issued from Manicheism and Arianism, and counted also many Jews or judaised Christians. Under this appellation of Albigenses, historians, whether political or religious, have almost unanimously included the Cathares.
(Edith Starr Miller, Occult Theocrasy, pp. 163-164) ”
“The face (of Frederick V) is not one’s idea of a Calvinist face, but Calvinism, in the Palatinate, was the carrier of mystical traditions, of the Renaissance Hermetic-Cabalist tradition which had moved over to that side.
’s spiritual advisor was an ‘orientalist’; perhaps, like Rudolph II, he sought an esoteric way through the religious situation.” (Francis Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, p. 172) Frederick
“What virtues and what vices brought upon the Jew this universal enmity? Why was he in turn equally maltreated and hated by the Alexandrians and the Romans, by the Persians and the Arabs, by the Turks and by the Christian nation? Because everywhere and up to the present day the Jew was an unsociable being.
“Why was he unsociable? Because he was exclusive, and his exclusiveness was at the same time political and religious or in other words, he kept to his political, religious cult and his law...This faith in their predestination, in their election, enveloped in the Jews an immense pride; they came to look upon non-Jews with contempt and often hatred, when patriotic reasons were added to theological ones.” (L’AntisÇmitisme, (1894) Bernard Lazare; LÇon de Poncins, The Secret Powers Behind Revolution, (1929).
Graphical representation of the 5 Points of Calvinism is the Pentagram.
"5 POINTS" OF CALVINISM
OF THE SAINTS
Notice that the Reformed Theology website depicts
5 point “ Calvinism a ” s a triangle. An astute comment states the obvious:
I think that your design would be better represented by a pentagram instead of a triangle. It is after all five-points. “ ”
John Calvin’s Jewish Interpretations of the Messianic Prophecies
The Judaizing Calvin by Aegidius Hunnius
“In The Judaizing Calvin, Lutheran theologian Aegidius Hunnius (1550–1603) analyzes the writings of John Calvin, the chief teacher of the Reformed Church—and documents a persistent pattern of interpretation in Calvin which undermines the fundamental teachings of the New Testament concerning Christ Jesus. Hunnius contends that Calvin was a ‘judaizing’ theologian—one who favored a Rabbinic Jewish interpretation of Old Testament prophecies—and that Calvin’s interpretations undermined the New Testament teachings concerning the Incarnation, the doctrine of the Trinity, and the death, resurrection and ascension of Jesus. Hunnius provides the reader with a passionate and substantial refutation of Calvin’s flawed interpretations, and upholds the apostolic understanding of the connection between Old Testament Messianic prophecy and the New Testament fulfillment of those prophecies.” (Paul A. Rydecki (Translator), James D. Heiser (Introduction)
“Aegidius Hunnius’ treatise would be an eye-opener for Christians who are under the influence of Calvinism, as well as those who wish to refute John Calvin’s writings with solid evidence from Scripture. Hunnius, a 16th century Lutheran theologian, exposed and powerfully refuted John Calvin's false exegesis of the Old Testament Messianic prophecies, which the Apostles, Church fathers, Christian apologists and pastors had used for 1500 years as Scriptural proof that Jesus was the promised Messiah. Almost single-handedly, John Calvin’s voluminous writings had managed to pull the rug out from under the Church by criticizing and rejecting the traditional and generally accepted understanding of the Messianic prophecies and promoting instead the interpretations of unbelieving Jewish rabbis who misapplied them to David or Solomon. Hunnius’ treatise presents, I believe, the most convincing evidence available that John Calvin was a Judaizing heretic who disingenuously undermined for future generations, not only the doctrine of the deity of Jesus Christ, but also of the Trinity. The power and scope of Hunnius’ treatise is most eloquently summarized in the full title:
“THE JUDAIZING CALVIN, that is, Jewish interpretations and corruptions by which John Calvin has, in detestable fashion, shamelessly corrupted the clearest passages and testimonies of the Holy Spirit regarding the glorious Trinity, the deity of Christ and of the Holy Spirit, and especially the prophecies of the Prophets regarding the coming Messiah — His birth, suffering, resurrection, ascension into heaven and session at the right hand of God.’” (Amazon Review)
For documentation read Chapter 5 of The Judaizing Calvin: Sixteenth-Century Debates over the Messianic Psalms.
Calvin was an ecumenist.
“Calvin...in a memorandum probably in December 1560...described the ‘Free and Universal Council’ that was needed ‘to put an end to the existing divisions in Christianity’. It must be free with respect to place of meeting, personnel, and procedure, and bound only by Scripture. Location should be central to the attending nations. This interesting document offers what is virtually an agenda for the Council, listing numerous points in dispute in the realms of doctrine, worship and polity. Calvin’s council was to be a conference on Faith and Order -- with power. The Pope was not excluded, but he must submit to the council’s decisions and swear to abide by them. Calvin insists that while a national synod may undertake internal reform, only a genuinely universal council can allay the troubles of Christendom.” (Rouse, History of the Ecumenical Movement, pp. 33-34)
1910 gave the impulse which issued in the World Conference on Faith and Order (at Edinburgh in 1927).” (Rouse, History of the Ecumenical Movement, p. 360) Lausanne
“Now Martin Luther and
JohnCalvin have all made it abundantly clear that they did not think of the church formation which they saw growing up in their lifetime as the last word. On the contrary, they all thought in terms of the Church Catholic and prayed for the restoration of the full catholicity and unity of the church.” (Harold E. Fey, History of the Ecumenical Movement, Vol. II, p. 123)
“At the time of the massacre of the Waldensians by Francis I (1545), Calvin did his utmost to arouse German and Swiss protests to the French government and to bring relief to the survivors. In a letter to Bullinger (
24 May 1561) he praised the heroic zeal of young volunteers in ministering to their partially restored communities.
JohnCalvin’s outlook was ecumenical from the outset, but interest in Church unity was probably quickened by his contacts with Bucer and Strasburg (1538-41). He worked in close harmony with Bucer and formed a friendship with Melanchthon (Luther’s assistant), whom he met first at Frankfurtin 1539. He took a minor part with these men at the Colloquies of Worms, Hagenau and Ratisbon (1540-41).
“Calvin had already, during his first period in
, sought a unification of the Swiss Protestants, and had criticized Bucer for his over-zealous insistence on the Wittenberg Concord when this was presented in Geneva Berne.” (Rouse, History of the Ecumenical Movement, pp. 48-49)
Calvin enforced the Old Testament Law in Geneva, Switzerland.
“Calvin was vicious toward his enemies, acting more like a devouring wolf than a harmless sheep. Historian William Jones observed that ‘that most hateful feature of popery adhered to Calvin through life, the spirit of persecution.’ Note how he described his theological opponents: ‘...all that filth and villainy...mad dogs who vomit their filth against the majesty of God and want to pervert all religion. Must they be spared?’ (Oct. 16, 1555). He hated the Anabaptists and called them ‘henchmen of Satan.’ Four men who disagreed with him on who should be admitted to the Lord’s Supper were beheaded, quartered, and their body parts hung in strategic locations in Geneva as a warning to others. He burned Michael Servetus (for rejecting infant baptism and for denying Christ’s deity). Calvin wrote about Servetus, ‘One should not be content with simply killing such people, but should burn them cruelly.’” (FBIS, “The Calvinism Debate”)
’s 1st edition of the Institutes led to the charge of Arianism and his execution of Servetus ’ launched the Unitarian movement.
“ It must be remembered that the doctrine of the Trinity and the first edition of the Institutes ’ paucity of reference to it, had, in 1537, earned Calvin a charge of Arianism by the Reformer Pierre Caroli. In 1554, the year following Servetus ’ execution in Geneva for the religious crime of anti-Trinitarianism, Calvin produced the theological tract Defensio orthodoxae fidei, contra prodigiousos errores Michaelis Serveti Hispani, in which he attempted to demonstrate, after the fact, that the doctrine included the necessity of capital punishment for its proper defense. The great irony is that while Michael Servetus was read widely, he had no disciples. Without a doubt, his death inspired incalculably more heterodoxy than his life and writings. ” ( “ Calvin on the Trinity, ” Kurt Anders Richardson)
“As has been shown, Hunnius also implicates Calvin in practices of trickery and subterfuge. He paints Calvin as a crafty, devious, and deceitful exegete who is not completely honest or straightforward about the consequences of his exegesis. Hunnius intends to demonstrate for his audience the dangerous ramifications of Calvin’s exegesis, namely, that it shatters the exegetical foundation of Christian teachings of Trinity and the deity of Christ, as well as christological prophecy in the Old Testament. 28. Hence, he judges Calvin to be “an angel of darkness, who comes forth from the abysmal pit to twist Scripture and destroy the grounds of defense of the Christian religion against Jewish and Arian adversaries.” 29.
“Finally, all of these charges culminate in Hunnius’s charge of judaizing against Calvin. By denying the literal sense of these Psalms as prophecies of Christ, Calvin “bends the most sacred words from Christ to the gambling games of Jewish glosses.” 30. When Calvin identifies the literal sense of these Psalms with their reading concerning the life of David, Calvin, says Hunnius, is reading like a Jew. When Calvin undermines the authority and power of apostolic readings of these Old Testament texts as prophecies of Christ and gives them a secondary or even a questionable status, then he—Hunnius contends—is promoting Jewish objectives. The deceitfulness and craftiness that Hunnius sees in Calvin’s exegesis is, most unfortunately, very much in line with a long-standing medieval Christian depiction of Jews. Thus, Calvin’s exegesis has not just opened Christianity to the heresy of Arianism but exposed it to the greatest danger of all, according to Hunnius—namely, to a way of reading the Old Testament in which Christ is no longer the primary or central content.” (G. Sujin Pak, The Judaizing Calvin, p. 111)
Calvin was a crypto-Jew and an agent of the Prieuré de Sion.
Contrary to general belief, Calvinism is of Jewish origin. It was deliberately conceived to split the adherents of the Christian religions and divide the people. Calvin’s real name was Cohen! When he went from Geneva to France to start preaching his doctrine he became known as Cauin. Then in England it became Calvin. History proves that there is hardly a revolutionary plot that wasn’t hatched in Switzerland; there is hardly a Jewish revolutionary leader who hasn’t changed his name.
“At B’nai B’rith celebrations held in Paris, France, in 1936 Cohen, Cauvin, or Calvin, whatever his name may have been, was enthusiastically acclaimed to have been of Jewish descent (
The Catholic Gazette, February, 1936).
“‘As long as there remains among the Gentiles any moral conception of the social order, and until all faith, patriotism, and dignity are uprooted, our reign over the world shall not come...And the Gentiles, in their stupidity, have proved easier dupes than we expected them to be. One would expect more intelligence and more practical common sense, but they are no better than a herd of sheep. Let them graze in our fields till they become fat enough to be worthy of being immolated to our future King of the World...We have founded many secret associations, which all work for our purpose, under our orders and our direction. We have made it an honor, a great honor, for the Gentiles to join us in our organizations, which are, thanks to our gold, flourishing now more than ever. Yet it remains our secret that those Gentiles who betray their own and most precious interests, by joining us in our plot, should never know that those associations are of our creation, and that they serve our purpose.
‘One of the many triumphs of our Freemasonry is that those Gentiles who become members of our Lodges, should never suspect that we are using them to build their own jails, upon whose terraces we shall erect the throne of our Universal King of the Jews; and should never know that we are commanding them to forge the chains of their own servility to our future King of the World...We have induced some of our children to join the Christian Body, with the explicit intimation that they should work in a still more efficient way for the disintegration of the Christian Church, by creating scandals within her. We have thus followed the advice of our Prince of the Jews, who so wisely said: ‘Let some of your children become cannons, so that they may destroy the Church.’ Unfortunately, not all among the ‘convert’ Jews have proved faithful to their mission. Many of them have even betrayed us! But, on the other hand, others have kept their promise and honored their word. Thus the counsel of our Elders has proved successful.
‘We are the Fathers of all Revolutions, even of those which sometimes happen to turn against us. We are the supreme Masters of Peace and War. We can boast of being the Creators of the REFORMATION ! Calvin was one of our Children; he was of Jewish descent, and was entrusted by Jewish authority and encouraged with Jewish finance to draft his scheme in the Reformation (which was to convince Christians it was alright to charge usury and other damnable heresies which are in violation of God’s Laws).
“‘Martin Luther yielded to the influence of his Jewish friends unknowingly, and again, by Jewish authority, and with Jewish finance, his plot against the Catholic Church met with success. But unfortunately he discovered the deception, and became a threat to us, so we disposed of him as we have so many others who dare to oppose us...Many countries, including the United States have already fallen for our scheming. But the Christian Church is still alive...We must destroy it without the least delay and without the slightest mercy. Most of the Press in the world is under our Control; let us therefore encourage in a still more violent way the hatred of the world against the Christian Church. Let us intensify our activities in poisoning the morality of the Gentiles. Let us spread the spirit of revolution in the minds of the people. They must be made to despise Patriotism and the love of their family, to consider their faith as a humbug, their obedience to their Christ as a degrading servility, so that they become deaf to the appeal of the Church and blind to her warnings against us. Let us, above all, make it impossible for Christians to be reunited, or for non-Christians to join the Church; otherwise the greatest obstruction to our domination will be strengthened and all our work undone. Our plot will be unveiled, the Gentiles will turn against us, in the spirit of revenge, and our domination over them will never be realized.
“’Let us remember that as long as there still remain active enemies of the Christian Church, we may hope to become Master of the World ...And let us remember always that the future Jewish King will never reign in the world before Christianity is overthrown...’”
Source: From a series of speeches at the B’nai B’rith Convention in Paris, published shortly afterwards in the London Catholic Gazette, February, 1936; Paris Le Reveil du Peuple published similar account a little later.
( The Catholic Gazette, February, 1936 )
click to enlarge
“This woodcarving of Presbyterian reformer John Knox (1512-1572) depicts him as having a full beard, covered head and Semitic facial features. We will propose that Knox was the son or grandson of Sephardic Jewish émigrés to Scotland. Courtesy of Scottish National Portrait Gallery.” (When Scotland Was Jewish, p. 8)
The Scottish reformers were Sephardic Jews who migrated from Spain.
“We propose that many, perhaps most, present-day Scots are descended from the same types of ancestors who produced these personages. Further, we suggest that their forbears were Mediterranean Jews from France, Spain and Portugal... As we shall show, Scotland was not, and is not, predominantly Celtic, nor is its ethnic history even known with accuracy.” (Ibid. p. 9)
“We also provide documentation suggesting that perhaps the majority of Scots people, especially those in the southwest and northeast of Scotland, are of Sephardic Jewish descent. And we argue that many of these same Scots today continue to practice a ‘Reform’ type of Judaism. It is called Presbyterianism.” (Ibid. p. 7)
The Protestant Reformation was a Judaizing movement.
“Curiously, few scholars have actively pursued this angle of investigation in exploring the origins of Protestantism. We suspect it is for the same reasons Scottish history is normally told as a monothematic battle for independence from the British ‘elephant’ that one popular writer finds himself ‘in bed with’ (Kennedy 1995) – told with such partisan zeal, in fact, that ‘Scots’ and ‘Scottish’ come to be defined only as a counterfoil to ‘British,’ eclipsing all other strains of nationality and culture that went into the making of modern Scotland. We propose that the Reformation, beyond being a movement against Catholicism, should be seen as a movement toward Judaism.” (Ibid. p. 200)
The mother of John Knox was a Sinclair of the Merovingian Jewish bloodline that will produce the Antichrist.
“John Knox was born sometime between 1505 and 1515 in or near Haddington, the county town of East Lothian. His father, William Knox, was a farmer. All that is known of his mother is that her maiden name was Sinclair and that she died when John Knox was a child.
“Knox knew that the queen regent [Mary of Guise, of Scotland] would ask for help from France. So he negotiated by letter under the assumed name John Sinclair with William Cecil, Elizabeth’s chief adviser, for secret negotiations, but he was forced to return to Scotland when he was recognized.” (Mason Shefa, Presbyterianism, pp. 61, 71)
“[William Knox’s] wife, John’s mother, was a Sinclair, a clan with a reputation for much pride of race.” (Geddes MacGregor, The Thundering Scot, 1957, p. 1)
See: The Merovingian Dynasty: Identity of the False Christ
John Knox married a member of the Merovingian Stewart bloodline.
“In 1564 Knox remarried at the age of 50 to Margaret Stewart, age 17, a member of the royal Stewart family.” (When Scotland Was Jewish, p. 203)
See: The Merovingian Dynasty: Prince Michael Stewart
“Knox did not record when or how he was converted to the Protestant faith.” (Mason Shefa, Presbyterianism, p. 61)
More biographical evidence that John Knox was Jewish.
JOHN KNOX (1513/14? to 1572)
“Details of John Knox’s childhood and even his birth date are unknown. Historians believe he was born around 1513 or 1514 in Haddington, Scotland. It is known that Knox attended a university, but unknown whether it was St Andrews or the University of Glasgow. 12 It appears unlikely that Knox graduated, choosing instead to take up the priesthood as a career around 1540. By the early 1540s he was serving as a theological lecturer and by 1545 had come under the influence of George Wishart, a Lutheran-oriented minister. In March 1546, Catholic Cardinal Beaton ordered Wishart burned at the stake for heresy and Scotland entered the bloody throes of the Reformation.
“The Cardinal himself was killed by an angry mob of Protestants, among them John Knox, who stormed his castle at St. Andrews. The Protestant radicals were soon defeated, however, and Knox was sent in chains to serve as a galley slave in France for 19 months. When pro-Protestant King Edward VI of England obtained his release, Knox made his way back to the Scottish borders, serving as a royal minister in Berwick and New Castle. Sickly Edward soon died, however, bringing the staunchly Catholic Mary Tudor (‘Bloody Mary’) to the throne of England. Knox fled to Europe, first to Frankfurt, Germany, and then on to Geneva, Switzerland, where he joined forces with John Calvin and also assisted in the translation of the Bible from Latin to English, resulting in the Geneva Bible. It was also in Geneva that Knox wrote the tract ‘Faithful Admonition’ (1554) which advocated the violent overthrow of ‘godless rulers’ by the populace. He became pastor of the English Reformed Church in Geneva (1556-1558) and subsequently published his tract ‘First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women,’ which attacked the policies and right to rule of Catholic monarchs Mary of Guise (Scotland) and Mary Tudor (England).
“In 1577, several Protestant Scottish noblemen, including James Stewart, the Earl of Moray (see chapter 1), signed a covenant declaring Protestantism the national religion of Scotland. Knox had been in correspondence with them and returned to Scotland at their request in May 1559. With Knox’s leadership, the Scottish Parliament declared itself a Protestant nation and adopted the ‘Scots Confession’; Catholicism was banned from Scotland.
“In 1560, a general assembly was held to assist the reformation of the Scottish church. By 1561, the ‘Book of Discipline’ was adopted by the Scottish Parliament, placing Calvinist Presbyterian structure at the center of church governance. In this treatise, Knox outlined a system of education and welfare covering the entire Scottish population that was to be financed by the sale of former Catholic properties. 13 Knox also redesigned the content of the worship service itself, determining that all rites and practices must be based in scripture.
“To go a little more deeply into Knox’s theology, let us have a look at the recent biography by Rosalind Marshall (2000). While Marshall never doubts that Knox was a whole-hearted Christian, she characterizes him as modeled largely after the Old Testament prophets. In her narrative, Knox emerges as a Biblical purist, much like the Jewish Karaites. He believed that the Bible was the word of God and that only the scriptures should serve as a religious guide. Among his favorite texts were the book of Daniel, Psalms (especially Psalm 6), Exodus and passages describing David and Moses. He was virulently anti-Catholic and anti-Spanish, viewing both Mary Stuart Queen of Scots and Queen Mary of England as ‘idolatrous harlots’ and ‘Jezebels.’ He advocated that ‘God should send a jehu to slay Mary Stuart.’ 14 He once threw a painting of the Virgin Mary into the river saying (p. 25), ‘Such an idol is accursed and therefore I will not touch it.’
“He railed against women as monarchs, especially Mary of England, stating that under her rule the English were ‘compelled to bow their necks under the yoke of Satan and of his proud mistress, pestilent Papists and proud Spaniards’ (Marshall 2000, p. 107). 15 His exhortations to his congregants were likewise rooted in the Old Testament (p. 145). For instance, he applied Psalm 80 (‘Turn us again, O Lord God of Hosts, cause thy face to shine and we shall be saved’) to current events, equating his present congregation to the ancient Israelites.
“Knox also urged the adoption of Mosaic law as the governing rule of Scotland. Under it, ‘certain crimes [including] murder, blasphemy, adultery, perjury and idolatry’ (Marshall 2000, p. 67) would be punishable by death. He further proposed that Scotland create a universal system of education so that every individual in the population would be literate and able to read the scriptures; he also envisaged a universal charity system to care for the indigent, ill and disabled. All three of these concepts are rooted in Judaic tradition, not in Christianity. Knox described the resulting society as on in which events on Earth would mirror those in Heaven – a metaphor which Marshall attributes to St. Augustine, but which could just as easily, and more immediately, be derived from the Cabalistic tradition in France. In Knox’s view, Scotland was ‘a new Israel dedicated to upholding God’s law’ (Smout 1969).
“By 1656 the Scottish Parliament had institutionalized Sabbatarianism, ‘forbidding anyone to frequent taverns, dance, hear profane music, wash, brew ale or bake bread, profanely walk or travel or do any other worldly business’ on the Sabbath (Smout, p. 79). Also forbidden on the Sabbath were ‘carrying in water or casting out ashes,’ a provision that had been in effect in Aberdeen as early as 1603, according to Smout (p. 79). These restrictions echo in remarkable detail the Jewish mitzvoth regarding the keeping of the Sabbath (Gitlitz 2003, pp. 317-354).
“Knox also developed very detailed guidelines for the religious training of ministers. ‘Trainee ministers would study not only theology, but Hebrew, mathematics, Physics, economics, ethics and moral philosophy’ (Marshall 2000, p. 153), a curriculum that appears to be patterned more on the Islamic and Jewish ideals emanating from Spain and southern France than on any prior Christian education scheme.
“Knox advocated that every household have its members instructed in the principles of the Reform religion, so they could sing the psalms at Sabbath services and hold household prayer services morning and evening in their homes (Marshall 2000, p. 153) Both parents were to ‘instruct their children in God’s law’ (p. 29); highly reminiscent of the familial worship practices of Orthodox Jews. Virtually the only exceptions to the Judaic nature of his religious ideology were the absence of dietary rules, or kashrut (for instance, a prohibition of pork); and the requirement that males be circumcised.
“Examining Knox’s family and friends helps shed some additional light on his thinking and sympathies. Among his most ardent supporters was Thomas Lever, formerly master of St. Johns College in Cambridge and later a Protestant minister living in Zurich. Lever is a surname of Semitic origin. Descendants of this same family afterwards immigrated to the American colonies and established the Lever Brothers Corporation; they were practicing Jews. Also among the early Protestants in Frankfurt , Germany, with one of the largest Jewish communities in Europe, were Thomas Parry (a common Sephardic surname) and John Foxe (=Fuchs, an Ashkenazic surname). When Knox returned to Scotland, he lodged in the house of a ‘well-known Protestant merchant, James Syme’ (Marshall 2000, p. 89), and had for his assistant another Scot, James Barron (both, of course, are Sephardic surnames).
“In 1652, Knox performed the wedding ceremony uniting Lord James Stewart and Lady Agnes Keith, a former a man who was self-consciously of Jewish descent and the latter a woman from an Aberdonian family that we have suggested was also of Jewish origin. Knox himself had married Marjorie Bowes (the surname Bovée is French Jewish), and the couple named their two children Nathaniel and Eleazer, Old Testament Hebrew names uncommon at the time. When Marjorie died in 1560, she gave her sons their blessing, ‘praying that they would always be as true worshippers of God as any that ever sprang out of Abraham’s loins’ (Marshall 2000, p. 155) – a strange injunction for a Christian mother.
“In 1564 Knox remarried at the age of 50 to Margaret Stewart, age 17, a member of the royal Stewart family. Of course, because of its linking of a noblewoman with a commoner (especially one who had presided over Catholic Mary Stewart’s downfall), and because of the pairing of a young woman with an elderly man, this marriage makes little sense – unless it is viewed from a Judaic perspective. As Marshall (2000, p. 1999) explains, Knox was the ‘leading minister’ in Scotland at the time. If we recognize Knox as the Head Rabbi, then his marriage to a woman of the ruling house, and of Davidic descent, makes eminent sense. 16.
“So, can we prove that either John Calvin or John Knox were of Marrano descent? No. But we can sum up our case by pointing to the preponderance of the evidence, which suggests that their ancestors were Jewish and that they, themselves, were aware of this. If we are correct in this inference, then perhaps the ultimate irony is that the Spanish Inquisition – intended to crush Judaism and send Spain’s Sephardim into ignominious exile – actually had the opposite effect. The displaced Jews, like so many tiny floating seed from a milkweed pod, landed on fertile ground in Holland, France, Scotland, Germany, Switzerland, and England, where they grew into the Protestant Reformation.” (When Scotland Was Jewish, pp. 50, 201-204)
12. Howie states that Knox was sent to St. Andrews to study under John Mair or Major, and M’Gavin in his note attempts to reconcile this fact with a record at Glasgow of 1520.
13. We have seen above how consistent this vision is to the Jewish ideal of Zedakah.
14. Compare the description of Marrano attitudes toward Mary in Gitlitz (2002), pp. 142-144. Often couched in mock theological arguments or told in the style of ribald miracle stories, this Marrano trait might be termed “Marioclasm,” the angry ridicule of Mariology and all Catholic superstition connected with it.
15. In the absence of Marrano ancestry, Knox’s antipathy toward Spain is virtually inexplicable. No histories of his life mention his traveling to Spain or even actually known any Spaniards. Thus there do not seem to be any negative personal experiences to account for his hatred of Spain.
16. With Margaret, Knox had three daughters, Martha, Margaret and Elizabeth; again, all Biblical names. Martha married Alexander Fairlie/Fairleigh; Margaret married Alexander Fairlie/Fairleigh; Margaret married Zachary (du) Pont; and Elizabeth married John Welsh.
Used by Permission. Elizabeth Caldwell Hirschman & Donald N. Yates, When Scotland Was Jewish: DNA Evidence, Archeology, Analysis of Migrations, and Public and Family Records Show Twelfth Century Semitic Roots, 2007, McFarland & Co. Publishers.
A review of When Scotland Was Jewish noted the extreme brutality of the Reformation in Scotland under John Knox.
“Well this does explain the extreme brutality of the Scottish Presbyterian reformation. I was just recently reading two different eye witness accounts that both said it was worse than the persecution by the early Romans. Another account called the Scottish reformation a revolution rather than a reformation. I know for a fact those that signed the Declaration of Arbroath were clearly not Scots just by what they wrote in the document. John Knox’s mother was a Sinclair. I guess that’s why Rosslyn Chapel wasn’t touched when Knox’s Presbyterian mob was destroying statues and burning churches throughout Scotland. Rosslyn Chapel built by a Sinclair before the reformation houses a statue of the fallen angel Lucifer, the Green Man from pagan religions plus Islamic and Judaic symbols. And they try to pass it off as a Christian chapel. Being just outside of Edinburgh I guess Knox must have missed it. Not. During the ethnic cleansing of the Highland Clearances Knox was counting the commercial benefits of a stolen country. If people with Highland descent from around the world knew the full truth about that period in Scottish history they would demand a formal apology from what is left of the Presbyterian church. But then with what Hirschman and Yates have to say possibly the formal apology should be coming from a different group.” (LDS & The Sephardic Connection: Seeding the Protestant Reformation)
THE REFORMATION: PART 3