THE TALMUD & THE BIBLE
by Victoria Dillen
Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. 2 Peter 1: 20-21
What about the Bible? Is Scripture sufficient in itself and considered by the Hebrew Roots ministries to be the inerrant Word of God? Are the Old and New Testament the complete revelation of God's will for the salvation of man. Do they constitute the divine and only rule of Christian faith and practice? Or is it true as stated by Peter Michas that we must return to the Hebrew or Aramaic writings and the Oral traditions of Judaism for New Testament doctrine?Is The New Testament Hebrew/Aramaic or Greek? by Peter Michas
"…since existing New Testament manuscripts are Greek, written to express Hebraic concepts, why be limited to the Greek or English translations when we have Hebrew,… The New Testament is in the pattern of the Jewish traditional work of Torah, Mishnah, Haggadah, Halakah, Talmud and Midrash, but inspired by God Himself for the common people.""These Hebraic works as well as the Inspired Scriptures were quoted from by Jesus and all the writers of the New Testament… to have full comprehension, we must read the scriptures in the proper Hebraic context… the New Testament is Hebrew/Aramaic and not Greek or English in origin or thought… Most all of the Judaic writings have been preserved for us and now translated into proper English directly from the Hebrew, as well as explained in true Hebraic manner…" 1.In an email message dated 1/19/99, James Trimm of the Society for the Advancement of Nazarene Judaism responded to questions regarding the sources of manuscripts for the Semitic New Testament Project (SNTP), on which he is working."…It is such a delight to spend so much time buried in the text in its original language... The SNTP is based on Hebrew and Aramaic rather than Greek manuscripts…the Aramaic text makes much more sense than the Greek text…This is just one example from this project which I believe will revolutionize New Testament understanding…""As also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things; in which are some things hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, unto their own destruction." 2 Peter 3:16Bible scholars agree that the New Testament was originally written in Greek."The New Testament writings were composed in Greek." 2.Unger's Bible Dictionary states:"Despite the critical claim that Matthew wrote the gospel in Aramaic, this contention has never been proved. If there was an Aramaic original it disappeared at a very early age. The Greek gospel, which is now the Church's heritage, was almost beyond doubt written in Matthew's lifetime." 3."By whom the gospel of Matthew was given in our present Greek form is unknown, but probably by himself. The consensus of critical scholars is that it is not a mere translation but an original composition." 4.
Hyam Maccoby, grandson to the famous Rabbi Haim Zundel Maccoby, the Polish Kamenitzer Maggid, [spirit guide], expounds the view of Peter Michas and other Hebrew Roots advocates that the Gospels were written in an era of extreme prejudice and hatred towards the Jews and that this anti-Semitism was reflected in the New Testament. Hyam Maccoby impugns the accounts of Mark and Luke:"… the Gospel of Mark, … the Gospel in which the lines of policy were laid down by the Gentile-Christian Church; a policy of condemnations of the Jews as an accursed people."
"…What had been the history of the Christian Church since the death of Jesus? The bulk of the New Testament which purports to give this history is The Acts of the Apostles; but this is a Gentile-Christian composition written about 100 A.D. by Luke, giving a Gentile-Christian slant to the events of those years. By reading between the lines of Acts, by following using a supplementary sources such as Josephus, the Talmud and early Christian historians, we can reconstruct the true history of the early church." 5.
Error in the Bible?
Other Hebraic Roots and related groups make the excuse that there is error in the Christian Bible. Promoting their NEW Translation called The Book of Yahweh, the House of Yahweh disparages the Bible:"… Many phrases have been deliberately mistranslated in order to hide their true meaning, so that Scripture would not bring to light the deceitful teaching of the established, and popular, religious organizations. The alteration of Yahweh’s Scriptures, either by untranslating or mistranslating, has caused the True Work, which His Prophets spoke of, to be hidden in most translations of the Scriptures, and has been damaging to those who are searching the Scriptures for the way to Eternal Life.""However, the most damaging error in all the Scriptures, was the error of removing YAHWEH’S NAME from the very scriptures He inspired to be written, and writing in its place the pagan titles of GODS, and SATAN HIMSELF! Because of this grave error, those who are calling upon the names of gods and Satan, even though ignorantly, are actually worshiping the gods and Satan—for they are not calling upon, and with, The NAME of YAHWEH!" 6.In his article, Explaining the Midrash, Jacob Prasch states that we need the knowledge of the Midrash and Jewish thought to rightly understand the Bible."…But Matthew appears to take the passage out of all reasonable context and twist it into talking about Jesus. We have to ask, is Matthew wrong? or is there something wrong with our Protestant way of interpreting the Bible? There is nothing wrong with Matthew, and there is nothing wrong with the New Testament. But there is something wrong with our Protestant mentality…They were reading a Jewish book as if it were a Greek book… The first step is going back to reading the Bible as a Jewish book, instead of as a Greek one." 7.Referring to the Midrash, Mr. Prasch says, "It takes the wisdom of the ancients to really understand these things." 8.
"Wisdom of the Ancients" bears an uneasy resemblance to Ancient Wisdom, which is the esoteric term used by occultists for Gnosis or Mysticism. William Kingsland wrote of this wisdom in his book, The Gnosis or Ancient Wisdom in the Christian Scriptures: Or the Wisdom in a Mystery:"...when I speak of the Gnosis, I do not refer specifically to the Greek or Coptic variety, but to that 'Ancient Wisdom' which can be discovered as a thread of gold running through allegories and myths and fables from the very earliest times of which we have any literary records, and which has more recently been somewhat more fully expounded to us by some of the existing Masters of that Wisdom." 9.Are Christians unable to understand the Bible without this Ancient Wisdom? What about Jewish teachings regarding the Messiah, the kingdom of God, sin and salvation? How do teachings expounded from the "Ancient Wisdom" texts compare with the New Testament teachings? What differences may be found between the inspired Old and New Testament and the "Mishnah, Haggadah, Halakah, Talmud and Midrash?" Has the Holy Spirit equally inspired these sources?
Perhaps Peter Michas is correct in saying that we need to understand the original concepts from history and as they are taught now —particularly from these books and the Jewish people themselves. Obviously, they would hold the keys to the Hebrew Roots of Christianity as taught by the Jewish sages. Avi ben Mordechai, an Orthodox Sephardic Jew, claims that the ancient Jewish teachers of the Law hold the answers:"…Since Sha’ul followed Messiah Y’shua, who also taught the Oral and Written Torah, I submit (at this time in my life) that we should be following in the footsteps of Judaism’s great teachers of G-d’s Law,… I believe that Judaism’s ancient scholars and sages were far more knowledgeable on the Oral Traditions than we could ever hope to be." 10.In other words, the rabbinical scholars are saying much the same thing as the leaders of the Hebrew Roots/Messianic movements. According to these eminent scholars, the Bible is in error and insufficient in itself, and therefore not easily or correctly understood without the aid of select knowledge and insight from the written and oral traditions of the Hebrew rabbis and scribes of old. Among the ancient Jewish writings which we are urged to study, the Talmud is regarded by the Jewish people as more important than even the Scriptures.
However, 1 Corinthians 2:5 states: "That your faith should not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God."
Primacy of the Talmud
Author, Nesta Webster quotes Talmud translator, Michael Rodkinson's view of the importance of the Talmud in Jewish life and the lesser importance of Scripture given by the Talmud:"The modern Jew is the product of the Talmud... The Talmud itself accords to the Bible only a secondary place. Thus the Talmudic treatise Soferim says: 'The Bible is like water, the Mischna is like wine, and the Gemarah is like spiced wine.'" 11.These statements are confirmed in the Talmudic treatise Soferim, in the tract Sopherim XV, 7, fol.13b. Claims of the inferior status of the Bible are echoed in the tract Babha Metsia, fol. 33a:"Those who devote themselves to reading the Bible exercise a certain virtue, but not very much; those who study the Mischnah exercise virtue for which they will receive a reward; those, however, who take upon themselves to study the Gemarah exercise the highest virtue." 12.The author, Rev. I. B. Pranaitis, reiterates the high esteem with which the Talmud and its writers are held, either placing it on a level with Scripture or surpassing it:"In the tract Erubhin, f.13b, where it is related that there was a difference of opinion between the two schools of Hillel and Schamai, it is concluded that:In the book Mizbeach, cap. V, we find the following views of the Talmud:
"The words of both are the words of the living God.""There is nothing superior to the Holy Talmud.""Contemporary defenders of the Talmud speak of it almost in the same way." 13."…The following is a well-known and highly praised opinion in the writings of the Rabbis: 'My son, give heed to the words of the scribes rather than to the words of the law.'"The reason for this admonition is found in the tract Sanhedrin X, 3, f.88b: "He who transgresses the words of the scribes sins more gravely than the transgressors of the words of the law." 14.
The Babylonian Talmud states that man can debate God and win: "A rabbi debates God and defeats Him. God admits the rabbi won the debate." Baba Mezia 59b.
Maimonides defines the various ways one would be considered a denier of the Law, referring not to the Bible, but the oral law as set down by the sages:Rabbi Maimonides, in Hilkhoth Teschubhah (III, 8) gives the list of those who are considered as denying the Law: "There are three classes of people who deny the Law of the Torah: (1) Those who say that the Torah was not given by God, at least one verse or one word of it, and who say that it was all the work of Moses; (2) Those who reject the explanation of the Torah, namely, the Oral Law of the Mischnah, and do not recognize the authority of the Doctors of the Law, like the followers of Tsadok (Sadducees) and Baithos; (3) Those who say that God changed the Law for another New Law, and that the Torah no longer has any value, although they do not deny that it was given by God, as the Christians and the Turks believe. All of these deny the Law of the Torah." 15.
Scribes and Pharisees
Who are the scribes whose words (the oral law) must be listened to and obeyed above all the written law? Quoting again from Hyam Maccoby’s, Revolution in Judaea, the following explanation is given of the terms Pharisee, Sadducee, scribes and rabbis, at the time of Christ."These [the Pharisees] were the members of the body of ‘Comrades’ (Haverim) as they called themselves. Their leaders were called ‘Wise Men’ (Hahamin), and they were later given the title ‘Master" (Rabbi) before their names. These leaders were also sometimes known as the ‘Scribes’ after the title of Ezra and his followers in late Biblical times. Pharisees, in fact, regarded Ezra as the founder of their movement, and they regarded themselves as the heirs of the Prophetic tradition." 16.The term "Pharisee" was used at the time of Jesus, and eventually became replaced completely with "rabbi", who was often a lay teacher. Rabbi Maccoby explains the differences between the Pharisees and Sadducees at the time of Christ."The central religious distinction between the Pharisees and the Sadducees was on the question of the ‘Oral Law’. The Pharisees held that in addition to the revealed word of God in Scripture ( i.e. the Old Testament, as Christians later called, and especially the five books of Moses known as the Torah or ‘Teaching’) there was an oral tradition consisting of interpretations and enactments supplementing and developing the Written Law." 17."…The Sadducees, on the other hand, held that the whole of Judaism lay in the Written Law which was a closed and final revelation with no need of interpretation or development. The Sadducees, ...wanted to keep Judaism simple. The wanted it to be centered around three great institutions, the Scripture, the Priesthood, and the Temple…" 18.Maccoby goes on to develop the Pharisaical view of the Torah as a dynamic document, subject to new interpretations by themselves, according to the Oral Law:"… To the Pharisees, however, this policy was, in their own graphic phrase, ‘to put Torah into a corner’.[B.Kiddushin, 66a.(Talmud)] The Torah was to them, a living thing which must continually encounter and grapple with new circumstances, thus, giving rise to new decisions which became part of the developing Oral Law. This does not mean the Pharisees regarded the Bible as imperfect. It was the Word of God, revealed to Moses and the Prophets. But new circumstances were continually drawing out of it new depths of meaning; its content was inexhaustible. This growing knowledge of the possibilities of the Torah, revealed through time in the processes of history, was the Oral Law. In other words, the place of the Torah was ‘not in heaven, but in the hands of men’; [B.B.Metz, 59b. (Talmud)] and the Oral Law was thus the working, human reality of the divine revelation." 19."The Pharisees, however, always claimed that the Oral Law, of which they were supporters and champions, went back to the origins of Judaism and that the Sadducees, in denying the Oral Law, were heretics who were attempting to abolish a fundamental religious principle." 20.In the volume, Josephus, the historian also contrasts the views of the Pharisees and Sadducees regarding the Oral Law:"…the Pharisees have delivered to the people a great many observances by succession from their fathers, which are not written in the law of Moses; and it is for this reason that the Sadducees reject them, and say that we are to esteem those observances to be obligatory which are in the written word, and not to observe what are derived from the tradition of our forefathers."21.In defense and support of the Pharisees, Hyam Maccoby adds this tribute to their preservation and multiplying of religious rituals and traditions:"The Pharisees added new Festivals (Chanukah and Purim) to the Jewish religious year; they added to the canon of Scripture…they added new doctrine to Judaism…they added new rites to the Temple worship…as well as being continual creators of new prayers and ceremonies in the synagogue."22.Indeed, the authority and respect attributed to rabbis is so great, that it is taught within the Babylonian Talmud, section Hagigah 27a., that no rabbi will go to hell.
The Pharisees and Sadducees were both believers in the word given by God to man, but the Pharisees added extra-Biblical oral teachings as authority over the written Word of God. They called the Sadducees heretics for not doing so. Those in the Hebrew Roots movement parallel the Pharisees in that they look to these extra-Biblical works for their guidance---and advise Christians to follow suit.
However, Jesus said of the Sadducees: "...ye know not the scriptures, neither the power of God..." Mark 12:24
Exclusiveness of the Talmud
Hebrew Roots and Nazarene teachers advise Christians to study the Talmud; however, the Talmud itself teaches that its precepts are only for the Jews. P.L.B. Drach states in his De l' Harmonie entre l'Elise et la Synagogue,"… the Talmud is not a law of righteousness for all mankind, but a meticulous code applying to the Jew alone ....In the Talmud and ... as Drach points out, "the precepts of justice, of equity, of charity towards one’s neighbor, are not only not applicable with regard to the Christian, but constitute a crime in anyone who would act differently ... The Talmud expressly forbids one to save a non-Jew from death, ...to restore lost goods, etc., to him, to have pity on him." 23.The exclusiveness of the Talmud is commonly understood among the Jews. In a footnote for the above quotes it is noted that Drach was: "Quoting the treatise Aboda-Zara, folio 13 verso, and folio 20 recto; also treatise Baba Kamna, folio 29 verso. Drach adds: "We could multiply these quotations to infinity"
It should be noted that Mr. Drachs knowledge comes firsthand: "…The Jewish Encyclopædia has an article on Drach in which it says he was brought up in a Talmudic school…" 24.Rev. I. B. Pranaitis relates the Talmudic view of the Gospels and those who own them."In the Talmud those who possess books called the Gospels are heretics [Minim]. Thus in Schabbath (116a) it says: "Rabbi Meir calls the books of the Minim Aven Gilaion [iniquitous volumes] because they call them Gospels." 25.
Is this what Larry Rowland means by "understanding in order to grasp all that scripture has to offer"? Considering the immense importance of the Talmud in Hebrew thought and Hebraic Roots teachings, it behooves Christians to understand the nature and contents of the Talmud.
Avi ben Mordechai has redefined the gospel as the Oral Torah:"…When Paul says, "I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ unto another gospel" you need to see the definition of Gospel in light of the Mishnah of Mark 1:1ff. It's a direct connection to the Torah of Moshe- Oral and Written…" 26.It has been established that the oral traditions of the Pharisees, which were committed to the Talmud, take authority and precedence over the Old Testament as Judaism's holiest book. The Talmud contains material accumulated over several centuries. A complete collection consists of 63 books in 524 chapters. The main elements of the Talmud are the Mishna, the Gamera (Babylonian and Palestinian) and the Midrashim or Midrash. The Mishna and Gemara compose the Jerusalem Talmud, which was revised in the third to fifth century and later named the Babylonian Talmud, the one commonly used today. Credit is given to Rabbi Judah the Prince for the compilation of the Mishna around 200 A.D.
The Talmud itself affirms, again, the authority of its own teachings in Erubin 21b (Soncino edition): "My son, be more careful in the observance of the words of the Scribes than in the words of the Torah (Old Testament)."In Judaism on Trial, Hyam Maccoby quotes Rabbi Yehiel ben Joseph, who insists that it is indispensable to understanding Scripture:"Further, without the Talmud, we would not be able to understand passages in the Bible...God has handed this authority to the sages and tradition is a necessity as well as scripture. The Sages also made enactments of their own... anyone who does not study the Talmud cannot understand Scripture." 27.From Fabre d' Olivet,author of La Langue He'braique, we learn not only the true source of the Hebrew Oral Tradition, which is Egypt, but its future transmission into the great body of Jewish mysticism called the Kabbalah:"…According to Fabre d'Olivet, Moses, who was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, "drew from the Egyptian Mysteries a part of the oral tradition which was handed down through 'the leaders of the Isrealites."¹. That such an oral tradition, distinct from the written word embodied in the Pentateuch, did descend from Moses and that it was later committed in writing in the Talmud and the Cabala is the opinion of many Jewish writers." ².28.From The Kabbalah in English, we may glean factual information about the Hebrew Sacred books, whose Gnostic (hidden) meanings were later developed into the Kabbalah:"…But the Scripture alone can not show the meanings within. Rabbinic hermeneutics could find a wealth of meaning in the subtlest details of the text, a characteristic that Kabbalistic writing took over… The Talmud is actually two works in one… The core work is the Mishnah, a codification of Jewish Law from the second century CE, together with transcriptions of debates, discussions, and teachings of various sages in the next two to three centuries, organized around the Mishnah, called the Gemara. The Talmud thus shares the same structure of the Mishnah--a tractate by tractate enunciation of Jewish law; but, being in form the record of oral teaching, the Gemara wanders far and wide. There are two versions of the Gemara, based on the work of the Academies of Babylonia (Babylonian Talmud/Talmud Bavli) and Palestine (called the Palestinian Talmud or Talmud of the Land of Israel; in Hebrew the title is Talmud Yerushalmi, or Jerusalem Talmud). Not every tractate of the Mishnah accumulated a Gemara, and some tractates have Gemara in one recension but not the other… the standard complete translation of the Bavli is that of Soncino Press, originally done in the 1930s… The Hebrew contains various commentaries normally printed with the Talmud, but these are not translated…"29.Regarding the Midrash, The Kabbalah in English notes the legendary character of its content, and further explains the more important authors and their commentaries."…The Midrash, stemming from the same period as the Talmud, but more concerned with supplying context and elaboration of the Biblical text. Much legendary material is archived here. Midrashim exist on the Torah, the books of Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Song of Songs (together referred to as the five Megillot), and Psalms. Usually all but the last are grouped together as Midrash Rabbah, and an multivolume translation from the Soncino Press is available…"30."Ancillary to this is Rashi and Rambam. Rashi is Rabbi Shlomo ben Yitzchak, author of the most important, because most widespread, commentary on the Bible and the Talmud; even the most uneducated of Jews in premodern times knew what Rashi said about a passage in the Bible, and his glosses are to be found on almost every page of the Talmud… His commentary generally distills the Talmudic teaching, and draws on the Midrash heavily; and in turn lies at the foundation of many later commentators… Rambam is Rabbi Moses ben Maimon (another acronym), usually called in English by his Greek name, Maimonides. He wrote the first definitive compilation of Jewish law since Talmudic times, the Mishneh Torah, but for the student of Kabbalah it is the Guide for the Perplexed, Moreh Nebuchim…" 31.Hyam Maccoby notes that The Haggada of the Midrash is composed of Jewish fables: "The Haggada (found mainly in the Midrash) is the poetical side of Pharisaism, and comprises folktales, parables, quaint fancies and metaphysical speculations." 32.
"Not giving heed to Jewish fables, and commandments of men, that turn from the truth." Titus 1:14
Project Genesis is connected to such Hebrew Roots sites as Larry Rowland's Messengers of Truth. The purpose of Project Genesis includes education about Jewish roots: "Project Genesis promotes further Jewish education about our Jewish roots, as represented in Jewish sources…"
According to their Facts: "Our teachers are Orthodox, so they approach the tradition from a traditional perspective (which is logical, after all). But our program so carefully avoids labels and politics that Conservative and Reform Rabbis have actively expressed their support of the program to their congregants and colleagues."33.One of their online Torah projects is the Hypertext Halacha, which is a translation of selections of the Mishna. The Hypertext Halacha: "...is a translation of the Shulchan Aruch and Mishna Berurah as distributed by Project Genesis " 34.
The term Halacha is used frequently when discussing the Midrash, Mishnah and Talmudic teachings. What is Halacha?"Halacha means "Way" or "Path". Halacha is the application of the Law (Torah) to everyday living. The traditional viewpoint is that Halacha should be decided by those who are most knowledgable in all aspects of Jewish law. Since the Halacha of each generation is decided by its greatest Torah scholars, and the Torah doesn't change, there is usually little change in the Halacha from one generation to the next. The development of Halacha is most evident when new situations arise for which rulings must be made, such as the destruction of the Temple, the development of electricity, and the increasing complexity of modern food processing technology. Since the non-traditional viewpoint is that the Torah itself was written by people, both the interpretation of the Law and its application are re-evaluated in each generation, using the interpretations of the past to serve primarily as non-binding guidance in how to continue this process. Both viewpoints encourages all Jews to study halacha, and apply it to their daily lives in order that they be brought closer to G-d." 35.The Halacha List Home page cites that teachings of the Mishna Berurah (like Project Genesis) are provided with the intended aim, "to familiarize the general public with various Halachic situations which are relevant to our everyday life." 36.
With that in mind we see from the Hypertext Halacha, distributed by Project Genesis, a list of topics from these Sacred Jewish books, relevant to everyday life. A few of these are:"Siman 11. The Laws of Tzitzis The Laws of the Tzitzis String, 12. Things that Invalidate Tzitzis [Fringes] … Siman 20. Laws of Tzitzis in a Cemetary… Siman 26. The Law for Someone Who Has Only One "Tifila"… Siman 28. The Laws of taking off the Tefillin… Siman 35. The Law Concerning the Number of Lines (in the Torah Passages of Tefilin)… Siman 39. Which People are fit to write Tefilin and …" Siman 43 The laws of tefilin when entering a bathroom(cont.)… Siman 45 The Laws of Tefillin in a graveyard and bathhouse… Siman 73 How one who sleeps with his wife and children should act… Siman 75 One should be careful about [a woman's] uncovered hair and a woman's [singing] voice when reading the Shema, and also not to read it in the presence of nakedness… Siman 76 To Be Careful of Excrement While Saying the Shema … Siman 79 One who comes across excrement when reading the Shema (continued)… Siman 89 The Laws of Prayer and Their Proper Time… Siman 100 One must concentrate upon all of the blessings, and one can pray in any language [Shmoneh Esrei]… Siman 103 Someone who needs to flatulate in the middle of praying…. Siman 114 The law of mentioning wind, rain and dew." 37.The Jewish writer, Solomon Maimon, wrote in 1792 to expose what he called "absurd questions" which are discussed with utmost seriousness and explicit detail in the Talmud.
". . .the oddest rabbinical conceits are elaborated through many volumes with the finest dialectic, and absurd questions are discussed with the highest efforts of intellectual power: for example, how many white hairs may a red cow have, and yet remain a red cow; what sort of scabs require this or that purification; whether a louse or a flea may be killed on the Sabbath-the first being allowed, while the second is a deadly sin; whether the slaughter of an animal ought to be executed at the neck or the tail; whether the high priest put on his shirt or his hose first; whether the Jabam, that is, the brother of a man who died childless, being required by law to marry the widow, is relieved from his obligation if he falls off a roof and sticks in the mire." 38.
Avi ben Mordechai, an Orthodox Sephardic Jew, indicates that we need to incorporate the Jewish "halacha" teachings in order for "believers" to be unified globally. His intention is that Jewish teachers and eventually a Jewish high court should be in place in order to teach us the Law."…As I see it today… Nazerean (Messianic) halacha should be in place to help us as a global community of believers in Y’shua HaMashiach properly interpret the written code of Sinai for the community at-large. Not only is this good government (i.e., "the kingdom of G-d on earth") but this is also the commandment of Y’shua.…""The council in Acts Chapter 15 led by it Nasi (Prince) Ya’acov HaTzadeq (James) and his Av Bet Din (Father of the House of Judgment) Kefa (Peter), was built on Y’shua’s Mishnah and Gemara and on the principle that biblical Jewish government must include the halachic jurisdiction of a Bet Din or high court ( Mattityahu 18). Consequently, I believe we have the responsibility and privilege to establish another authority like the one recorded in Acts 15, and ideally, it should be seated in Y’rushalayim! ""… first century halacha is not what it used to be. Furthermore, since there is no official high court to represent the halachic interests of believers in Y’shua, what are we to do with our own disputes, judgments, and need for legal rulings? Do we turn to the established traditions of the Sephardim? [Kabbalists] The Ashenazim? [Mystics] The Conservatives or some other body of Judaism?…I believe that Judaism’s ancient scholars and sages were far more knowledgeable on the Oral Traditions than we could ever hope to be. So, what do we do? Where do we stand today since we do not have our own high court and have not had one for nearly two millennia?" 39.Both the Sephardim and the Ashkenazim are gnostic sects of Judaism. The Sephardim are credited with the dissemination of the Cabala throughout Europe after the Jews were expelled from Spain. A recent Ecumenical New item reported that the Chief Rabbis of Israel, who are of the Sephardim and Ashkenazim, have entered into a dialogue with the Vatican to accomplish global unity.
Here we have a glimpse of the true agenda behind the Hebrew Roots Movement: to return mankind to the Law as interpreted by a high court reminiscent of the Sanhedrin! Yet the New Testament boldly states that Christians are no longer under Law but have "become dead to the law by the body of Christ; that ye should be married to another, even him who was raised from the dead, that ye should bring forth fruit from God. (Rom. 7:4) How can Jews and Christians be unified as "believers" if each community believes a different gospel? Moreover, what is the Jewish attitude toward Jesus Christ, the Savior who liberates men from bondage to the Law? To discover the Rabbinic view of Jesus Christ, we must take a closer look at the Talmud, which Jews regard as superior to both the Old and New Testaments.
THE TALMUD & JESUS CHRIST
1. Peter Michas, http://www.ez/com/~peterm/HB.GK.RF.HTML
2. Fitzmeyer, "Responses to 101 Questions on the Dead Sea Scrolls; p.104 ; as cited in Andrew Gould's Some Disturbing Aspects of the So-Called 'Hebrew Roots Movement,' and Their Implications".
3. Unger's Bible Dictionary p. 706, Ibid.
4. Ibid p.422 Ibid.
5. Hyam Maccoby; "Revolution in Judaea: Jesus and the Jewish Resistance"; p. 230, ii. Ocean Books; 1973
6. House of Yahweh, www.yahweh.com
7. Jacob Prasch; Explaining the Midrash; www.cw.co.za/moriel/midrash.html]
9. Kingsland, William. THE GNOSIS OR ANCIENT WISDOM IN THE CHRISTIAN SCRIPTURES: OR THE WISDOM IN A MYSTERY; London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1954 (1937), Kingsland, p.83
10. Avi ben Mordechai; www.millenium7000.com/halacha.htm
11. Michael Rodkinson (i.e. Rodkinssohn), in Preface to the translation of the Talmud, Vol. I. p. x. ; as Cited in: Nesta H. Webster, p. 370-371., "Secret Societies and Subversive Movements" Omni Publications, Eighth edition, 1964
12. Rev. I. B. Pranaitis; The Talmud Unmasked: The Secret Rabbinical Teachings Concerning Christians; The Talmud; holywar.org/txt/talmud_unmasked.html
15. Pranaitis, op.cit.
16. Maccoby, op.cit., p.77-78
17. Ibid., p. 74
18. Ibid., p.74-75
19. Ibid., p.75
20. Ibid., p..76
21. Ibid., p.77
22. Ibid., p.281
23. P.L.B. Drach, De l’Harmonie entre l’Elise et la Synagogue, I. 167. Cited in: Nesta H. Webster, op. cit. p.371
24. Webster, Ibid., p.11-12
25. Rev. I. B. Pranaitis; holywar.org/txt/talmud_unmasked.html
26. Avi ben Mordechai, email to Ed Tarkowski, May 1998
28. Fabre d' Olivet, La Langue He'braique, p.28 (1815); 2. According to the Jewish view God had given Moses on Mt. Sinai alike the oral and the written Law, that is, the Law with all it’s interpretations and applications."-Alfred Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah,I.99 (1883)quoting other Jewish authorities; as Cited in Nesta H. Webster; Ibid., p.6
29. Kabbalah in English, http://remus.rutgers.edu/~woj/arcana/index.html
32. Maccoby, op.cit., p. 281
33. Project Genesis, http://www.torah.org/info/genesis.html
34. Hypertext Halacha; http://www.torah.org/learning/halacha/
35. Torah and Halachic Authority (3/12) - What is "Halacha?" How is it determined?; http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/text/faq/usenet-faqs/html/judaism/FAQ/03-Torah-Halacha/faq-doc-45.html
37. Hypertext Halacha; http://www.torah.org/learning/halacha/
38. Solomon Maimon: an Autobiography, translated from the German by J. Clark Murray, p. 28 (1888). The original appeared in 1792. As Cited in: Webster ; op.cit. p. 7
39. Avi ben Mordechai, Halacha; www.millenium7000.com/halacha.htm